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PyroReactor - Repurposing 100 years of Established Technology

Economic, effective, low-risk approaches to impactful advanced energy production

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The PyroReactor is a universal wellbore reactor system that will catapult advanced energy technologies from research labs into reality.  The PyroReactor exploits the tools and techniques perfected by the oil industry over the past 100 years to provide safe, low risk scaling, while reducing capital and operating costs. The PyroReactor utilizes PyroHeater technology to generate RF skin effect heating to achieve conversion temperatures from just above ambient, well into supercritical water’s domain. 

Unlike oil wells, the PyroReactor is a deep, tube-in-tube small diameter vessel that is sealed from the surrounding subterrestrial environment. Envision a concentric double pipe heat exchanger with 1000s of feet of downward (feed) and upward (product) flow.  Highly viscous feedstock enters the downward channel of the PyroReactor at relatively low pressure, where it steadily increases in pressure due to the greater hydrostatic depth. Temperatures gradually increase, first by exchanging heat with the hot upflowing product in the heat exchange zone, followed by the PyroZone, where the PyroHeater makes reactor conditions over 500°C possible.  Once the downflowing stream reaches the bottom of the PyroReactor, it flows up the upward channel where pressure and temperature gradually decrease, allowing for safe, recoverable conditions at the surface.

Rather than iteratively larger centralized facilities common in the status quo, PyroReactors can be modularly integrated using the same proven and relatively low capital design within close proximity to feedstock sources throughout all regions of the United States and the world.  The PyroReactor has a minimal surface footprint, since reactor volumes are achieved with deep, small diameter vessels. Even at pilot scale, the PyroReactor will produce outputs that rival commercial scales of others.  

Wellbore Reactor Advantages

Unlocking advanced reactions economically & safely  

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Rather than expensive, custom, & challenging surface facilities, standard components from the oil industry comprise the PyroReactor, making it ideal for facilitating advanced conversion reactions.  Unlike huge multi-billion-dollar reactor vessels with 3 ft. thick walls, standard OCTG piping contains 80,000 psi, at temperature, beyond even the most extreme conversion conditions.

  • Small diameter, deep reactors safely contain large reactor volumes

  • Off the shelf components – inexpensive and readily available

  • On site reactor assembly and deployment using simple drilling and completion methods

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Thousands of Feet of Unique Dynamics

Gradual changes in temperature and pressure

Flow Induced Mixing

  • Improved reaction mechanisms

  • Enhanced homogenization

  • Enhanced heat transfer


Unrivaled Energy Efficiency

  • Inherently efficient heat exchange between the cool downflowing input and hot upflowing output

  • Hydrostatic pressure assist reduces required pumping energy

Modular Deployment

Effectively delivering heat for diverse and complex situations 


Suitable for feeds, reactions & products, across industries 

Traditionally achieving temperatures of  50-500°C thousands of feet down a narrow wellbore was an astronomical challenge.  The heating elements, the wires, and electrical connections to deliver Mega-Joules of electricity were vulnerable to the harsh environment requiring constant maintenance and replacement costs.  Since the PyroReactor turns the reactor piping into direct heat sources, the previous problems delivering heat are solved

  • The RF energy is connected to the inner and middle pipe at the surface

  • The RF energy is transferred to the PyroZone without generating heat due to nonmagnetic clad piping

  • The RF energy causes skin effect heating of the magnetic PyroZone piping, turning it into the sole direct heat source

From manure to electronic waste, mine outputs to bitumen, the PyroReactor is flexible enough to process them all for the bioenergy, oil, mining, defense industries and more 

Diverse & Optimized Reactions

  • Near Ambient Conversion: 30-90°C facilitates thermophilic digestion to produce Bio-Hydrogen and Bio-Methane

  • Hydrothermal Conversion: 200-373°C & 100-220 atm, facilitates sub-critical reactions with water

  • Supercritical Conversion: 373-500°C & 220-500 atm, facilitates supercritical reactions with water  

Optimized for Diverse Feeds

Individual reactors optimized for local feedstocks and targeted products

  • Conversion of hydrocarbon waste to biofuels

    • Manures/sewage

    • Agricultural silage

    • Forest residues

    • Municipal solid waste 

  • Extraction of REE/advanced materials

    • Mine tailings​

    • Fly ash

    • Electronic Waste

  • Upgrading heavy hydrocarbons to high quality crude oil 

    • Oil sands/bitumen​

    • Coal

Optional Features Ensure Success 

A slew of optional features mitigate risk, maximize yields and ensure product quality   

  • Horizontal laterals - increase residence time at pressure

  • Targeted catalytic delivery

  • Targeted solids collection and removal 

  • Dynamic heat exchange

  • Single, small scaling step from pilot​

  • 100-5,000 bbl/day

  • Low Risk & Optimized

    • Eliminates scaling risk​

    • Maximizes available feeds

    • Diversifies supply chain

    • Minimizes cost of transportation & logistics

    • Provides economic & societal benefits to local communities 

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